gazette inspiration collector / on space


* THE BLOG    * ON SPACE    * NEWS    * ABOUT    * CONTRIBUTORS    * SUBMIT A POST    * SPACE ARCHIVE    * SUBSCRIBE VIA EMAIL    * RANDOM SPACE POST   
A trip to Orion and Horsehead Nebula
The Horsehead Nebula, a part of the optical nebula IC434 and also known as Barnard 33, was first recorded in 1888 on a photographic plate taken at the Harvard College Observatory. Its coincidental appearance as the profile of a horse’s head and neck has led to its becoming one of the most familiar astronomical objects. It is, in fact, an extremely dense cloud projecting in front of the ionized gas that provides the pink glow so nicely revealed in this GIF.

A trip to Orion and Horsehead Nebula

The Horsehead Nebula, a part of the optical nebula IC434 and also known as Barnard 33, was first recorded in 1888 on a photographic plate taken at the Harvard College Observatory. Its coincidental appearance as the profile of a horse’s head and neck has led to its becoming one of the most familiar astronomical objects. It is, in fact, an extremely dense cloud projecting in front of the ionized gas that provides the pink glow so nicely revealed in this GIF.

(via spaceplasma)

The Holographic Universe Principle: What is & What Should Never be
as read on fromquarkstoquasars.com
Given all of the recent coverage on the radical idea that the universe is one massive hologram, we thought we would take a few minutes to delve into what that really means for us. Basically, the holographic universe principle suggests that we’re living in a simulated reality (different from the hypothesis that states we live in a computer simulation), where our physical world is nothing more than a detailed illusion. This illusion is actually projected by our brains, as energy fields are being decoded into the seemingly 3 dimensional universe we see around us. In a more speculative sense, the theory suggests that the entire universe can be seen as a two-dimensional information structure, which is “painted” on the cosmological horizon, such that the three dimensions (four, if you include time) we observe are only an effective description at macroscopic scales and at low energies.
[[MORE]]
“Our brain mathematically constructs objective reality by interpreting frequencies that are ultimately from another dimension, a deeper order of existence that is beyond both space and time” says David Bohm, who is the primary voice behind the holographic universe principle. (He certainly is not the only scientist that consider it a viable hypothesis. Brian Greene, author of “The Elegant Universe” is one of them.)  Bohm was dissatisfied with standard cosmological theories that couldn’t explain diverse phenomena predicted by quantum mechanics. He was also very interested in  understanding how they relate to the neuropathology of the brain.

Einstein called entanglement “spooky action at a distance.”–       Image Source

So, in 1982, an experiment was conducted by a research team led by physicist Alain Aspect at the Institute of Theoretical And Applied Optics, in Paris. It was discovered that under certain conditions, subatomic particles (such as electrons) are able to instantaneously communicate with each other regardless of the distance separating them. It doesn’t matter whether they are 10 feet or 10 billion miles apart. Somehow the particles always seem to know what the other is doing. We now call this “quantum entanglement, and it’s one of the more baffling aspects of particle physics, mostly because the underlying theme appears to contradict Einstein’s theory of special relativity, which says NOTHING can travel faster than the speed of light. (including information)

Overall, the experiment demonstrated that the web of subatomic particles that compose  our physical universe – the so-called “fabric of reality itself” – possess what appears to be an undeniable “holographic” property. If true, the holographic principle would comprehensively include reality as we know it, but also previously unexplained phenomena, such as the paranormal, along with “out-of-body experiences,” telepathy, lucid dreaming and near-death experiences (among other things).
Before we get ahead of ourselves with why this theory is unlikely, lets talk a bit about the properties that would give this hypothesis some credence:

“The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna” searches for gravitational waves – Image Source

First, we know that dense celestial objects, like black holes, neutron stars and pulsars, have immense gravitational fields that should give way togravitational waves — one of the most sought after aspects of quantum physics. One particular German team that is searching for evidence of gravitational waves, the GEO600 team, were met with some kind ofunexplainable eerie noise, which disrupted the GEO 600 detector from doing its job properly. One researcher from the Fermilab in Batavia, Craig Hogan, has proposed an interesting solution to the mystery (formally known as “quantum noise“): He thinks that there must be a fundamental limit of space/time, where the smoothness of the space/time continuum begins to break down into “grains,” similar to pixels that comprise images on a computer screen.
In his mind, this finding (the noise)  suggests that the entirety of the universe is merely the 3D projection of information found on a 2 dimensional information structure (you can liken it to that of a CD). Said structure is located at the very “edge” of the universe and the projection occurs when light bounces off from it, causing the light to scatter throughout the universe. His conclusion is somewhat vindicated by some of the observations we’ve made about the manner in which black holes behave, along with the Hawking radiation that continues to leak from them over time.
Enter stage left, the “Black Hole Firewall Paradox,” which has been a highly debated subject amongst physicists far more intelligent than I am. So, I’ll let one of them explain this:


Image Source:

“Information encoded in an event horizon “is born from other well known interpretations of the cosmos, in particularly the black hole paradox. As something falls into a black hole, passing the event horizon, the quantum information held in the event horizon can be encoded to reveal information about the interior. Therefore, the information inside the black hole’s event horizon is not destroyed (note: for details on this, see the Thorne-Hawking-Preskill bet). If the information about the interior of a black hole is encoded in its event horizon, scientists have come forward to point out that perhaps the information inside our Universe is encoded in the Universe’s horizon.”
What does that mean? Well, If you’ve been an avid reader of this page, you may remember an article I wrote about what would hypothetically happen to you if you were to survive the descent into the event horizon of a super-duper massive black-hole. In this, I basically said that along with the time dilation associated with the curvature of space/time, you would (hypothetically) be able to observe the entire history of the black hole’s existence simultaneously. The holographic principle is the same on a larger scale. All of the information should be encoded in the event horizon of our universe in Planck Length bits of space/time, and everything within is a projection of the 2D inner shell.
Now, as for why this theory is unlikely:


This is the gamma ray in question. Image: ESA – Source


The European Space Agency’s “Integral gamma-ray observatory” was initially opened in 2010. It’s capable of measuring gamma-radiation and its counterpart, gamma-ray bursts, which is one of the most powerful and destructive forces of nature. Depending on their highly unpredictable behavior, it’s possible for the observatory to be able to study these bursts to determine if space/time does indeed become “grainy” or pixilated at a quantum level. One particular burst traversed space for nearly 300 million light-years, before reaching our planet. Yet,  no blurriness in the fabric of space/time was observed, at least not down to 10^48 meters — ten trillion times smaller than the fundamental unit of length in quantum physics, Planck length. Of which, physicists are unsure if it’s even possible for a unit of length that’s smaller than Planck length to exist. So, this is one pretty monumental strike against the holographic universe principle.
There is still one other explanation that can’t be ruled out though, on this train of thought; perhaps gamma-ray photons behave differently than expected via the holographic principle? We still have a lot more to understand about the fabric of space/time, the universe and rectifying quantum mechanics with other well established scientific theories. This one.. this one makes my head hurt.
To read more about the latest developments concerning the holographic universe principle, click here

as read on fromquarkstoquasars.com

The Holographic Universe Principle: What is & What Should Never be

as read on fromquarkstoquasars.com

Given all of the recent coverage on the radical idea that the universe is one massive hologram, we thought we would take a few minutes to delve into what that really means for us. Basically, the holographic universe principle suggests that we’re living in a simulated reality (different from the hypothesis that states we live in a computer simulation), where our physical world is nothing more than a detailed illusion. This illusion is actually projected by our brains, as energy fields are being decoded into the seemingly 3 dimensional universe we see around us. In a more speculative sense, the theory suggests that the entire universe can be seen as a two-dimensional information structure, which is “painted” on the cosmological horizon, such that the three dimensions (four, if you include time) we observe are only an effective description at macroscopic scales and at low energies.

The polar view has become possible because Cassini has changed the angle of its orbit
In the image, red indicates clouds at lower altitudes, with green representing higher altitude

Saturn hurricane snapped by Cassini craft

An enormous hurricane raging at Saturn’s north pole has an eye 2,000km (1,250mi) across - big enough to cover the UK 12 times over.

The striking images of the storm were snapped from a height of 420.000km (260,000mi) by the Cassini spacecraft, which arrived at Saturn in 2004.

They were captured in red and infrared wavelengths and have been false-coloured to show detail.

APOD 2013 February 24
M51: The Whirlpool Galaxy in Dust and Stars  Image Credit:  N. Scoville (Caltech), T. Rector (U. Alaska, NOAO) et al., Hubble Heritage Team, NASA
 Explanation:  The Whirlpool Galaxy is a classic spiral galaxy. At only 30 million light years distant and fully 60 thousand light years across, M51, also known as NGC 5194, is one of the brightest and most picturesque galaxies on the sky. The aboveimage is a digital combination of a ground-based image from the 0.9-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory and a space-based image from the Hubble Space Telescope highlighting sharp features normally too red to be seen. Anyone with a good pair of binoculars, however, can see this Whirlpool toward the constellation of the Hunting Dogs (Canes Venatici. M51 is a spiral galaxy of type Sc and is the dominant member of a whole group of galaxies. Astronomers speculate that M51’s spiral structure is primarily due to its gravitational interaction with a smaller galaxy just off the top of the image.

APOD 2013 February 24

M51: The Whirlpool Galaxy in Dust and Stars
Image Credit: N. Scoville (Caltech), T. Rector (U. Alaska, NOAO) et al., Hubble Heritage Team, NASA

Explanation: The Whirlpool Galaxy is a classic spiral galaxy. At only 30 million light years distant and fully 60 thousand light years across, M51, also known as NGC 5194, is one of the brightest and most picturesque galaxies on the sky. The aboveimage is a digital combination of a ground-based image from the 0.9-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory and a space-based image from the Hubble Space Telescope highlighting sharp features normally too red to be seen. Anyone with a good pair of binoculars, however, can see this Whirlpool toward the constellation of the Hunting Dogs (Canes Venatici. M51 is a spiral galaxy of type Sc and is the dominant member of a whole group of galaxies. Astronomers speculate that M51’s spiral structure is primarily due to its gravitational interaction with a smaller galaxy just off the top of the image.

(via thinkcosmos)

GALE

by KORB and ECHOLAB

Echolab is a studio specialized in sound design. They have imagined with the motion design studio Korb what would the spread of sound be like on Mars. The result is simply amazing, both for visuals and sounds.

Acoustic dust performance on the Red planet (northwestern part of the Aeolis Quadrangle at 5.4˚S, 137.8˚E) by KORB and ECHOLAB.

A gale is very strong wind. Gale is also a crater on Mars where NASA Curiosity rover landed on August 2012. It is the most advanced mobile robotic science lab ever to explore another planet. The rover aims to behave for a Martian year, but the nuclear power source may last for 14 years. What does the future hold for Curiosity? Will Mars rover ever leave Gale Crater?

watch our playlist with all the space video selections

Spinning Black Hole Observed for the First Time

Astronomers have conclusively measured the spin of a black hole for the first time by detecting the mind-bending relativistic effects that warp space-time at the very edge of its event horizon — the point of no return, beyond which even light cannot escape.

Read more

(via discoverynews)

Will our Universe end in a “big slurp”?
Higgs-like particle suggests it might
If the “Higgs-like particle” discovered last year is really the long-sought Higgs boson, the bad news is that its mass suggests the universe will end in a fast-spreading bubble of doom. The good news? It’ll probably be tens of billions of years before that particular doomsday arrives.
That’s one of the weirder twists coming out of the continuing analysis of results from Europe’s Large Hadron Collider, which produced the first solid evidence for the existence of the Higgs boson last year. Current theory holds that the Higgs boson plays a role in imparting mass to other fundamental particles. Confirming the discovery of the Higgs would fill in the last blank spot in that theory, known as the Standard Model.
Physicists discussed the state of the Higgs quest in Boston on Monday during the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
[[MORE]]
So far, the particle that was found at the LHC fits all the requirements for the Higgs boson, but scientists aren’t quite ready to confirm that the particle is really, truly the Higgs boson. It could be, say, just the first of multiple particles involved in the process. “The door is still very much open that there’s [another] particle that has a role to play, or even more than that,” said Christopher Hill, a physicist at Ohio State University who is also deputy physics coordinator for the LHC’s Compact Muon Solenoid experiment.
The LHC has just started a two-year shutdown for equipment upgrades — and Howard Gordon, deputy chair of the physics program at Brookhaven National Laboratory, said “it’s going to take another few years” after the collider is restarted to confirm definitively that the newfound particle is the Higgs boson.
In the meantime, physicists have tightened their estimates of the particle’s mass: Hill said the current estimate from the Compact Muon Solenoid is 125.8 billion electron volts, or 125.8 GeV, plus or minus 0.6 GeV. The figure from the LHC’s other Higgs-boson detector, known as ATLAS, is 125.2 GeV, plus or minus 0.7 GeV.
Those figures can be factored into equations that point to the long-term fate of the universe, said Joseph Lykken, a theoretical physicist at Fermilab.
So what’s the outlook?
"If you use all the physics that we know now, and we do what we think is a straightforward calculation, it’s bad news," Lykken said. “It may be that the universe we live in is inherently unstable. At some point, billions of years from now, it’s all going to be wiped out."
He said the parameters for our universe, including the Higgs mass value as well as the mass of another subatomic particle known as the top quark, suggest that we’re just at the edge of stability, in a “metastable” state. Physicists have been contemplating such a possibility for more than 30 years. Back in 1982, physicists Michael Turner and Frank Wilczek wrote in Naturethat “without warning, a bubble of true vacuum could nucleate somewhere in the universe and move outwards at the speed of light, and before we realized what swept by us our protons would decay away.”
Lykken put it slightly differently: “The universe wants to be in a different state, so eventually to realize that, a little bubble of what you might think of as an alternate universe will appear somewhere, and it will spread out and destroy us.”
That alternate universe would be “much more boring,” Lykken said. Which led him to ask a philosophical question: “Why do we live in a universe that’s just on the edge of stability?” He wondered whether a universe has to be near the danger zone to produce galaxies, stars, planets … and life.
Even Hill found it interesting that the parameters of particle physics put our universe right along the critical line. “That’s something new, which we didn’t know before, and which leads some of us to that there’s something else coming,” Hill said.
When Hill referred to “something else,” he was talking about new discoveries in physics — not the end of the world. Lykken emphasized that it would be at least tens of billions of years before vacuum instability took hold.
"To get the exact number, we need more funding," he joked.
Read article here
Image Credit: Corbis

Will our Universe end in a “big slurp”?

Higgs-like particle suggests it might

If the “Higgs-like particle” discovered last year is really the long-sought Higgs boson, the bad news is that its mass suggests the universe will end in a fast-spreading bubble of doom. The good news? It’ll probably be tens of billions of years before that particular doomsday arrives.

That’s one of the weirder twists coming out of the continuing analysis of results from Europe’s Large Hadron Collider, which produced the first solid evidence for the existence of the Higgs boson last year. Current theory holds that the Higgs boson plays a role in imparting mass to other fundamental particles. Confirming the discovery of the Higgs would fill in the last blank spot in that theory, known as the Standard Model.

Physicists discussed the state of the Higgs quest in Boston on Monday during the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

(via astronomerinprogress)

Revealed: first image of a new planet being formed with star dust
World’s highest radio telescope captures image (left) providing evidence of how ‘gas’ planets are formed
The world’s highest radio telescope, built on a Chilean plateau in the Andes 5,000 metres above sea level, has captured the first image of a new planet being formed as it gobbles up the cosmic dust and gas surrounding a distant star.
[[MORE]]
Astronomers have long predicted that giant “gas” planets similar to Jupiter would form by collecting the dust and debris that forms around a young star. Now they have the first visual evidence to support the phenomenon, scientists said.
The image taken by the Atacama Millimetre-submillimetre Array (ALMA) in Chile shows two streams of gas connecting the inner and outer disks of cosmic material surrounding the star HD 142527, which is about 450 light-years from Earth.
Astronomers believe the gas streamers are the result of two giant planets – too small to be visible in this image – exerting a gravitational pull on the cloud of surrounding dust and gas, causing the material to flow from the outer to inner stellar disks, said Simon Casassus of the University of Chile in Santiago.
“The most natural interpretation for the flows seen by ALMA is that the putative proto-planets are pulling streams of gas inward towards them that are channelled by their gravity. Much of the gas then overshoots the planets and continues inward to the portion of the disk close to the star, where it can eventually fall onto the star itself,” Dr Casassus said.
“Astronomers have been predicting that these streams exist, but this is the first time we’ve been able to see them directly. Thanks to the new ALMA telescope, we’ve been able to get direct observations to illuminate current theories of how planets are formed,” he said.
The image, published in the journal Nature, appears to answer a long-standing conundrum of star formation: how does a new sun continue to grow by accumulating cosmic material when orbiting proto-planets are busy gobbling up the same source of cosmic dust and gas, creating huge gaps in the star-forming cloud of material.
“This has been a bit of a mystery, but now we have found a process that allows the star to continue to grow despite the gap,” Dr Casassus said.

Revealed: first image of a new planet being formed with star dust

World’s highest radio telescope captures image (left) providing evidence of how ‘gas’ planets are formed

The world’s highest radio telescope, built on a Chilean plateau in the Andes 5,000 metres above sea level, has captured the first image of a new planet being formed as it gobbles up the cosmic dust and gas surrounding a distant star.

OVERVIEW

On the 40th anniversary of the famous ‘Blue Marble’ photograph taken of Earth from space, Planetary Collective presents a short film documenting astronauts’ life-changing stories of seeing the Earth from the outside – a perspective-altering experience often described as the Overview Effect.

plate1:Planisphere (mechanism) of Ptolemy, of the heavenly orbits following the hypothesis of Ptolemy laid out in a planar view plate3:Scenography of the planetary orbits encompassing the Earth plate4:Planisphere of Copernicus, or the system of the entire created universe according to the hypothesis of Copernicus exhibited in a planar view plate5:Scenography of the Copernican world system plate6:Planisphere of Brahe, or the structure of the universe following the hypothesis of Tycho Brahe drawn in a planar view. plate10:The sizes of the celestial bodies [in some copies the terrestrial sphere has the continents drawn in by hand] plate15:The (astrological) aspects, such as opposition, conjunction, etc., among the planets plate19:Selenographic diagram depicting the varying phases and appearances of the Moon by (means of) shading plate21:Representation (of the motions) of Venus and Mercury plate26:Northern stellar hemisphere, with the terrestrial hemisphere lying underneath

Harmonia Macrocosmica

by Andreas Cellarius

The publication of Andreas Cellarius’ Harmonia Macrocosmica in 1660 forms the final chapter of an ambitious cartographic project initiated 25 years earlier by the Amsterdam publisher Johannes Janssonius (1588-1664), namely, the publication of an ATLAS in several volumes which described not only the surface of the Earth but the whole of Creation, including the cosmos and its history.

The Scale of the Universe 2
What does the universe look like on small scales? On large scales? Humanity is discovering that the universe is a very different place on every proportion that has been explored. For example, so far as we know, every tiny proton is exactly the same, but every huge galaxy is different. On more familiar scales, a small glass table top to a human is a vast plane of strange smoothness to a dust mite — possibly speckled with cell boulders. Not all scale lengths are well explored — what happens to the smallest mist droplets you sneeze, for example, is a topic of active research — and possibly useful to know to help stop the spread of disease. The below interactive flash animation, a modern version of the classic video Powers of Ten, is a new window to many of the known scales of our universe. By moving the scroll bar across the bottom, you can explore a diversity of sizes, while clicking on different items will bring up descriptive information. (text source)
experience it on the official website on it’s actual size
You need a more recent version of Adobe Flash Player. 
Flash Animation Credit & Copyright : Cary & Michael Huang
14 year old Cary said he invites people to correct any errors they find. This is the second version.
______Powers of Ten is a 1968 American documentary film written and directed by Charles and Ray Eames. The film depicts the relative scale of the Universe in factors of ten (see also logarithmic scale and order of magnitude)duration 9 mins

The Scale of the Universe 2

What does the universe look like on small scales? On large scales? Humanity is discovering that the universe is a very different place on every proportion that has been explored. For example, so far as we know, every tiny proton is exactly the same, but every huge galaxy is different. On more familiar scales, a small glass table top to a human is a vast plane of strange smoothness to a dust mite — possibly speckled with cell boulders. Not all scale lengths are well explored — what happens to the smallest mist droplets you sneeze, for example, is a topic of active research — and possibly useful to know to help stop the spread of disease. The below interactive flash animation, a modern version of the classic video Powers of Ten, is a new window to many of the known scales of our universe. By moving the scroll bar across the bottom, you can explore a diversity of sizes, while clicking on different items will bring up descriptive information. (text source)

experience it on the official website on it’s actual size

You need a more recent version of Adobe Flash Player.

Flash Animation Credit & Copyright : Cary & Michael Huang

14 year old Cary said he invites people to correct any errors they find. This is the second version.

______
Powers of Ten is a 1968 American documentary film written and directed by Charles and Ray Eames. The film depicts the relative scale of the Universe in factors of ten (see also logarithmic scale and order of magnitude)
duration 9 mins